Each year, Earth Day—April 22—marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in At the time, Americans were slurping leaded gas through massive V8 sedans. Industry belched out smoke and sludge with little fear of legal consequences or bad press. Air pollution was commonly accepted as the smell of prosperity. The book represented a watershed moment, selling more than , copies in 24 countries, and beginning to raise public awareness and concern for living organisms, the environment and links between pollution and public health.
Earth Day gave voice to that emerging consciousness, channeling the energy of the anti-war protest movement and putting environmental concerns on the front page.
A Brief History of Surveillance in America
The idea for a national day to focus on the environment came to Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson, then a U. Senator from Wisconsin, after witnessing the ravages of the massive oil spill in Santa Barbara, California. Inspired by the student anti-war movement, he realized that if he could infuse that energy with an emerging public consciousness about air and water pollution, it would force environmental protection onto the national political agenda. Hayes built a national staff of 85 to promote events across the land.
The mids saw the reemergence of acoustic jazz with the return of artists like Dexter Gordon to the US music scene, who, along with a number of other artists, such as trumpet innovators like Don Ellis and Woody Shaw , who were among the last of the decade's traditionally-oriented acoustic jazz musicians to be signed to major record labels, to receive critical and widespread commercial recognition and multiple Grammy nominations. The late s also saw the beginning of hip hop music with disc jockeys like DJ Kool Herc and Afrika Bambaataa taking loops from funk and soul records and play them repeatedly at block parties and dance clubs.
At the end of the s, popular songs like " Rapper's Delight " by Sugarhill Gang gave hip hop a wider audience. Country music also continued to increase in popularity in the s. Between and , it became more mainstream, particularly with the outlaw movement , led by Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson. The genre also became more involved in Hollywood toward the end of the decade, with country-themed action films such as Smokey and the Bandit and Every Which Way But Loose , a trend that continued into the early 80s with Urban Cowboy and Bronco Billy.
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A major event in music in the early s was the deaths of popular rock stars Jimi Hendrix , Janis Joplin , and Jim Morrison , all at the age of Two of popular music's most successful artists from other eras died within eight weeks of each other in Elvis Presley , the best-selling singer of all time, died on August 16, Bing Crosby , who sold about 50 million records, died on October 14, His single, White Christmas , remains as the best selling single of all time, confirmed by the Guinness Records.
In addition to the early 70s deaths, in bands such as Simon and Garfunkel broke-up as did the Beatles, over the next few years Creedence Clearwater Revival, The Everly Brothers and more.
Statistically, Led Zeppelin was the most successful musical act of the s, having sold more than million records since Kramer The movies of the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman reached a new level of expression in motion pictures like Cries and Whispers Car chase movies also became a popular film genre of the s with such films as Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry in , and perhaps the genre's most popular film Smokey and the Bandit in Asian cinema of the s catered to the rising middle class fantasies and struggles.
In the Bollywood cinema of India, this was epitomized by the movies of Bollywood superhero Amitabh Bachchan. Another Asian touchstone beginning in the early s was Hong Kong martial arts film which sparked a greater interest in Chinese martial arts around the world. Martial arts film reached the peak of its popularity largely in part due to its greatest icon, Bruce Lee. During the s, Hollywood continued the New Hollywood revolution of the lates with young film-makers.
Top-grossing Jaws ushered in the blockbuster era of filmmaking, though it was eclipsed two years later by the science-fiction film Star Wars Saturday Night Fever single-handedly touched off disco mania in the U. The Godfather was also one of the decade's greatest successes and its first follow-up, The Godfather Part II was also successful for a sequel. The Rocky Horror Picture Show flopped in its debut, only to reappear as a more-popular midnight show later in the decade.
Still in limited release 36 years after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. The Exorcist was a box office success for the horror genre, inspiring many other so-called "devil Satan " films like The Omen and both of their own sequels. All That Jazz gained high critical praise, winning four Oscars and several other awards.
It was an inductee of the National Film Registry list. In the United Kingdom, colour channels were now available; three stations had begun broadcasting in colour between and However, many viewers continued to watch black-and-white television sets for most of the decade, which meant for example that televised snooker in which the colour of balls is important did not reach the heights of its popularity until the s. Notable dramas included Play for Today and Pennies from Heaven. The science fiction show Doctor Who reached its peak. Many popular British situation comedies sit-coms were gentle, unchallenging comedies of middle-class life; typical examples were Terry and June and Sykes.
However, the middle-class settings of The Good Life and The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin contrasted with their anti-establishment theme of people rejecting traditional social norms. The television information retrieval service Teletext was initially introduced when the BBC Ceefax system went live on 23 September In the late s, BBC2's unveiled a new identity, a twin-striped "2", which was the first electronically generated symbol and scrolled on and off the screen.
As the s began, the Big Three TV networks were rapidly re-engineering their lineups, noting that existing programs were not attracting the youth audience.
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Most existing programs still operated on paradigms established in the s, and some shows had literally been on the air since the dawn of TV broadcasting in the late s and early s. Shows that had low ratings or insufficient youth appeal were cancelled as networks scrambled to attract the large baby boomer audience. This particular trend was known as the rural purge. Television was transformed by what became termed as "social consciousness" programming, such as All in the Family and Soap , which broke down television barriers. The women's movement ushered in a slew of programming featuring strong, independent females as central characters.
Most notable was The Mary Tyler Moore Show , which spawned the successful spin-offs Rhoda and Phyllis , and also resulted in Mary Tyler Moore becoming the first female to head a television production company of her own, MTM Enterprises , which churned out groundbreaking programming in the late s throughout the s. Minority-centric television programming also featured prominently during the s. The television western , which had been very popular in the s and s, all but died out during the s, with Bonanza , The Virginian , and Gunsmoke ending their runs.
Replacing westerns were police and detective shows, a trend that would last through the s. Television still had its medical shows of the s, however, Emergency! By the mid-to-late s, " jiggle television "—programs oriented toward sexual gratification and bawdy humor and situations such as Charlie's Angels , The Love Boat , and Three's Company —became popular.
Soap operas expanded their audiences beyond housewives with the rise of All My Children , As the World Turns , Somerset , and The Young and the Restless ; with many extending their episodes from 30 minutes to an hour. The height of Match Game ' s popularity occurred between and , before it was overtaken by Family Feud in Another influential genre was the television newscast, which built on its initial widespread success in the s.
A Brief History of Gifted and Talented Education
The science fiction phenomenon of the late s that began with Star Wars went to television with shows such as Battlestar Galactica. Variety shows, a staple of TV programming since the beginning, were also re-engineered to appeal to young viewers. The Carol Burnett Show also ended its historic year run in In the end, rising production costs largely did in variety shows. As cable television became more affordable and accessible by U. HBO launched on November 8, , becoming the nation's first pay-television channel.
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On September 30, , HBO became the first television network to continuously deliver signals via satellite when it showed the " Thrilla in Manila " boxing-match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. Star Channel launched their service offerings nationally in through the delivery of movies on video tapes for cable providers to broadcast. This proved problematic since the videotapes were often riddled with technical difficulties. Star Channel eventually was linked up to satellite in January Shortly after, Warner Communications acquired the channel and relaunched it on December 1, , in its current form as The Movie Channel.
Media giant Viacom launched their premium service, Showtime , nationally on July 1, , after a brief, wildly successful test launch on their cable system in Dublin, California. In , Australian TV tests color transmissions full-time color comes in South Africa saw nationwide television service for the first time on January 5, , although limited-view, locally available television began on May 5, The Oakland Athletics three-peated at the World Series in — Steelers were led by Terry Bradshaw and Chuck Noll , and the Cowboys were led by Roger Staubach and Tom Landry , while the Miami Dolphins became the only team in NFL history to go "all the way," winning the Super Bowl with an undefeated record —a feat that remains unmatched to this day.
As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. They would form what would become known as the counterculture. The forms of escape and resistance would manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a frisbee. Fiction in the early '70s brought a return to old-fashioned storytelling, especially with Erich Segal 's Love Story.
The seventies also saw the decline of previously well-respected writers, such as Saul Bellow and Peter De Vries , who both released poorly received novels at the start of the decade. Racism remained a key literary subject. John Updike emerged as a major literary figure. Reflections of the s experience also found roots in the literature of the decade through the works of Joyce Carol Oates and Wright Morris. With the rising cost of hard-cover books and the increasing readership of " genre fiction ", the paperback became a popular medium. Criminal non-fiction also became a popular topic. Irreverence and satire, typified in Kurt Vonnegut 's Breakfast of Champions , were common literary elements.
The horror genre also emerged, and by the late s Stephen King had become one of the most popular genre novelists. The postmodern author Thomas Pynchon published his most famous work, Gravity's Rainbow , in In non-fiction, several books related to Nixon and the Watergate scandal topped the best-selling lists.
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Architecture in the s began as a continuation of styles created by such architects as Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Early in the decade, several architects competed to build the tallest building in the world. The decade also brought experimentation in geometric design, pop-art , postmodernism , and early deconstructivism. Design trends in the s were marked by a backlash against the bright colors and futurism of the s and s and a rise in popularity of dark, earthy tones with extensive use of brown, green, purple, and orange.
Wood decor and paneling was integral to s interior design as well, replacing the obsession of the s and s with chrome and aluminum.
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Darker colors not only reflected the back-to-nature mindset of the decade, but the sluggish world economy with its lowered optimism and expectations for the future. The building's use of open spaces and groundbreaking geometry brought rare attention to the small South Asian country. Hugh Stubbins 's Citicorp Center revolutionized the incorporation of solar panels in office buildings. The seventies brought further experimentation in glass and steel construction and geometric design.
Chinese architect I.
The fact that no taller tower had been built between the construction of the CN Tower and the Burj Khalifa shows how innovative the architecture and engineering of the structure truly was. Modern architecture was increasingly criticized as the decade went on from the point of view of postmodern architects, such as Philip Johnson , Charles Moore, and Michael Graves , who advocated a return to pre-modern styles of architecture and the incorporation of pop elements as a means of communicating with a broader public. Other architects, such as Peter Eisenman of the New York Five , advocated the pursuit of form for the sake of form and drew on semiotics theory for support.
As the decade drew to a close, Frank Gehry broke out in new direction with his own house in Santa Monica, a highly complex structure, half excavated out of an existing bungalow and half cheaply built construction using materials such as chicken wire fencing. In , electrical workers in Mexico City found the remains of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in the middle of the city.
Clothing styles during the s were influenced by outfits seen in popular music groups and in Hollywood films. Much of the s fashion styles were influenced by the hippie movement. Bell-bottomed pants were especially popular throughout the decade. The Farrah Fawcett hairstyle was considered particularly fashionable during the decade. Lava lamps were especially popular during the decade. Richard Nixon. Gerald Ford. Jimmy Carter. Leonid Brezhnev. Edward Heath.