The dungeons at Carlisle Castle — can you imagine being crammed in here with 89 other people?
Throughout that very warm summer of , 90 prisoners were kept crammed into that very small space in the dungeons — the trials only started in September There was very little water — but as you can probably tell standing in there, the walls are still damp. We have a light in there now, but for the men kept in those cramped conditions it would have been dark.
And the atmosphere! The smell alone must have been horrific. One or two prisoners actually did die in the dungeons and the bodies were removed. Most of the prisoners were then either sent for trial, and tried for treason — which was, of course, a capital offence. And of course in those days hanging drawing and quartering was the punishment if found guilty. Ty Johnston. The Empire of Dust.
Humans Can Lick Too
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Firing patterns of pMSNs in the dark period of the Test session. A Raster plots of neuronal activity of two neurons a from GLU-group and b from H 2 O-group in the dark-period of four cycles D1—4 left and inter-spike interval histograms of the given neurons right. B Comparison of coefficient of variance CV of the inter-spike intervals of all neurons recorded during the 4 days of each session in each group. C Comparison of mean firing rates.
Locations of recorded pMSNs. Each inset in the right shows a low-magnified view of the corresponding section.
The value on each section indicates the distance from the bregma. AcbC, nucleus accumbens core; AcbS, nucleus accumbens shell; aca, anterior commissure anterior part; CPu, caudate putamen; ec, external capsule. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that a dry-licking behavior associated with IG glucose affects NA neuronal firing using a new operant dry-licking paradigm where IG self-administration of glucose was able to induce a licking behavior, in spite of the absence of oral-intake.
The present results indicate that IG glucose self-administration induced different firing pattern of NA neurons than water IG glucose self-administration. In this study, a new paradigm of dry-licking behavior was used to assess the ability of IG self-administration of 0.
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Daily dry-licks across 4 days in the test session were increased in the GLU group with IG self-administration of glucose, compared to the H 2 O group with IG self-administration of water. Consistent with the present results, previous studies report similar results that IG nutrient without oral feedback exerts rewarding effects Tellez et al.
The present results extend previous findings; rewarding effects of IG infusion of glucose support not only licking a dry-spout but also instrumental conditioning i. It is believed that food and water, or cues associated with them, activate DA neurons, and facilitate behaviors directed toward the acquisition of reward Palmiter, We found that CV of pMSN activity decreased in the dark period of the test session without oral intake of water, compared to that in the training session of the H 2 O group, while the CV was maintained in the same test session in the GLU group.
Licking-behavior also showed similar changes; licking-counts in the light-period were decreased in the test session of the H 2 O group compared to the GLU group, suggesting that the firing variability i. The reduction of the licking behavior in the light period of the test session of the H 2 O group may be associated with a reduction in DA release in NA during the dark period. Previous studies suggest a relationship between DA release and appetitive behaviors; tonic slow increases in DA level are involved in motivation Niv et al.