Topics include state pricing theory, capital asset pricing model, portfolio theory and risk aversion. Political Economy of Technology and Policy. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 This course introduces students to the important issues related to technological change and innovation — how new technologies impact the economy and our society.

The lectures also focus on economic and social policies aimed at promoting growth and development. Globalization and Its Implications. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 The course explores opposing economic views on globalization and its effect on the social, cultural, and environmental aspects of life in developed and developing countries.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 An examination of economic models related to labor markets, current labor market trends, and the influence of related government policies. Topics include the economic rationale for government, expenditure analysis, and the allocative and distributive consequences of taxation. It is strongly recommended that students have one semester of statistics.

Economic History of Women in the United States. Race, Economics and Inequality. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 Analytically rigorous study of the connections between law, philosophy and policy in the micro and macro economics of racial and social inequality in democratic market societies. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 Development of the market economy and its major institutions. The changing place of the economy in society. History of Economic Thought.

International Economic Theory.

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Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 Covers trade theory, tariffs and non-tariff barriers, economic integration, balance of payments, fixed and flexible exchange rates. Money and Financial Institutions. Topics include determinants of asset prices, risk management, and financial regulations. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 This course examines several areas of law from the "Law and Economics" perspective and analyzes the assumptions that underlie this approach to law. Property rights law, contract law, and tort law will be covered. Topics to be announced at time of preregistration.

International Monetary and Financial Economics. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 The course covers balance of payments, foreign exchange markets, international monetary systems, the adjustment mechanism, macroeconomic policy in an open economy and monetary integration. Lecture hours:3 An analysis of economic transition and development in China, with emphasis on its role in the Asia-Pacific and world economies.

Methods in Experimental Economics. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 This course provides students with an introduction to methods used in conducting experimental economics research. Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3 The goal is to develop an understanding of Marx's analysis of capitalism by reading mainly original texts by Marx and consider its applications both to disciplinary thinking and contemporary events. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 The main theories of development; economic and social dualism; agricultural, industrial, and trade strategies; and the role of less developed countries in the emerging global economy.

Lecture hours:3 Applies Marxian value theory and class analysis to understand contemporary U. Explains how prices are determined and how competition acts to distribute value, revolutionize technology and working conditions, and trigger economic crises. Explores gender and class in the enterprise and household and examines economic democracy as a viable alternative. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 This course will focus on the structure and the dynamics of the advanced capitalist economies, including the United States.

Among other topics, it will examine the empirical evidence and the theoretical claims of the political economy approach concerning economic and financial crises. Prerequisite: Permission of the department chair or the instructor. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 This course will explore the main theories of the business cycle that explain the causes of depressions and recessions, and would try to use them to explore the main differences and similarities between the Great Depression and the most recent recession.

The differences between Keynesian including New Keynesian and Monetarist.

## Mathematics (MATH) | Penn State

Comparative Economic Systems. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 A comparison of the cultures and institutions of modern economic systems. The characteristics of selected capitalist, social democratic and socialist economies are assessed from mainstream, Institutionalist and Marxian analytical perspectives.

Risk Management in Financial Markets. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 The course is focused on the applications of finance theory in asset pricing and risk management.

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The topical coverage will extend to fixed income, equity securities, options, derivatives, risk analysis, and hedging strategies. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 Theoretical and empirical examinations of issues in health economics. Course includes semester-long research project on a health topic.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 Examination of economic approaches to managing increasingly scarce water resources and allocating them among competing uses.

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Demand management strategies such as water pricing and water conservation programs, supply enhancements such as dams, wells, and water transfers, and the valuation of ecosystem goods and services will be explored. Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3 An examination of the development and influence of American economic institutions from colonial to current times. Elementary Geometry and Statistics. The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools.

## All The Math Books You’ll Ever Need

Mathematical Explorations. Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3 An exploration of topics from pure mathematics, applied mathematics and statistics, illustrating the power and beauty of mathematical reasoning. For students considering a major in mathematics. Open to first-year students only. Mathematical Problem Solving. Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable Mathematical problem solving, with an emphasis on problems and topics that appear in contests such as the Putnam Competition.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:4 Calculus of vector-valued functions and functions of several variables. Multiple, line, and surface integrals; applications, and extrema. Green's, Stokes' and Divergence Theorems. Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3 Basic methods of solving ordinary differential equations. Systems of linear differential equations, Laplace transform, applications and selected topics. Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3,Other:1 Exploratory data analysis, sampling and experimental designs, sampling distributions and confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, least squares regression, ANOVA, applications.

Statistical software is used and a semester long project with real data is undertaken.

### Economics Courses

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3,Other:1 Exploratory data analysis, multiple linear regression, analysis of variance and logistic regression. Inferential analysis emphasizing applications to a range of disciplines is conducted using statistical software. Complex numbers Further dynamics Eigenvalues and eigenvectors Dynamic systems Dynamic optimisation in discrete time Dynamic optimisation in continuous time Introduction to analysis Metric spaces and existence theorems Notes on further reading Index. Click here for North and South America. We would like to place cookies on your computer to improve your viewing experience and help us make this website better.

By using our site you accept the terms of our Privacy Policy. The European debt crisis. Karl Polanyi. Qualities of food. The UK financial system. The Asian Financial Crisis. The end of Irish history? X Cookies We would like to place cookies on your computer to improve your viewing experience and help us make this website better. Close Your cart is empty. Progress in all varieties of constructive mathematics was relatively slow throughout the next decade and a half.

Thus, at a stroke, he gave the lie to the commonly-held view expressed so forcefully by Hilbert:. Intuitionistic mathematics, recursive constructive mathematics, and even classical mathematics all provide models of BISH. How is this multiple interpretability achieved? This refusal has led to the criticism that his approach lacks the precision that a logician would normally expect of a foundational system. However, this criticism can be overcome by looking more closely at what practitioners of BISH actually do when they prove theorems: in practice, they are doing mathematics with intuitionistic logic.

Experience shows that the restriction to intuitionistic logic always forces mathematicians to work in a manner that, at least informally, can be described as algorithmic; so algorithmic mathematics appears to be equivalent to mathematics that uses only intuitionistic logic. This view, more or less, appears to have first been put forward by Richman [, ]. Taking the logic as the primary characteristic of constructive mathematics, it does not reflect the primacy of mathematics over logic that was part of the belief of Brouwer, Heyting, Markov, Bishop, and other pioneers of constructivism.